MMR Technologies was founded in 1980 by Professor William A. Little to further develop the micro-miniature refrigerator technology he had invented at Stanford University. His innovative technology fabricated miniature gas refrigerators on glass substrates using a proprietary and patented photolithographic process.
In the mid-1980s the company began developing a new type of refrigeration system for cryo-electronics using multi-component, mixed gas refrigerants as the cooling agents. In 1994 MMR was awarded a major contract by the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington for the development of a low-cost cryocooler for cryoelectronics. This program was highly successful, resulting in the commercialization of MMR's popular "Kleemenko Cycle" coolers. These low-cost, extremely reliable, closed-cycle cryogenic coolers are now used worldwide for the cooling of X-ray detectors, low noise amplifiers, medical devices, in the liquefaction of nitrogen and in numerous other applications.